نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی، قزوین.
2 دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بینالمللی امام خمینی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The connection between Sufism and politics in the contemporary history of Afghanistan began with the establishment of Ahmad Shah Abdali's Government (1747). Ahmad Shah Abdali had a good relationship with other Sufis. The Dastarbandi (turban ceremony) tradition has been established for the kings at the hands of Sufi elders and gained their support in his campaigns. The role of Sufi elders during the reign of Durranis and Muhammadzais is also very important. With the invasion of Britain and the Soviet Union and the emergence of internal conflicts between local rulers, the presence of Sufis in the country's politics increases. From the perspective of "Political Sociology" whose main topic is the analysis of mutual relations between the government and social forces? The possibility of finding the open and hidden role of the leaders of the Naqshbandiyya, Qadiriyya and Chishtiyya sects, opposing political officials, supporting them, reacting against the British aggressors has been investigated. Sufis have always played a role in the political and social developments of Afghanistan and have enjoyed great respect and closeness in the government systems. With the British and Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the Sufis mobilized the people against the colonial forces by organizing their political and jihadi activities in the form of political organizations. Although the relationship between Sufism and politics in Afghanistan had ups and downs but Sufis have always been respected in the government. Kings and ministers participated in their assemblies and monasteries and were consulted for the administration of the country. In the contemporary history of Afghanistan, Sufis have always resisted internal oppression and injustice and foreign aggression, as mentioned earlier.
Research Question: The main question of the article is how has been the quality of relationship between the Sufi sects and the political ruling in contemporary Afghanistan and their role in the country’s political power?
Research Hypothesis: The hypothesis is that Sufis, within sects of Naqshbandiyya, Qadiriyya and Chishtiyya, have had a significant influence on high-raking offcials, and the courtiers and royals in Afghanistan. Their elders and leaders have played a crucial role in the Afghan politics and power systems. They often played greater contributions in the removal, appointment of kings and political leaders and legitimizing the power as well as creating political parties in the country.
Methodology (and Theoretical Framework if there are): The current study has been conducted, based on content analysis method which is a type of qualitative analyses and from the point of view of "Political Sociology" whose principle subject matter is the analysis of mutual relations between governmental power and social forces in contemporary history of Afghanistan. One can examine the visible role of the leaders of the Naqshbandiyya, Qadiriyya and Chishtiyya sects in confronting political officials or supporting them or their reaction against the British and Soviet aggressors.
Results and Discussion: The link between Sufism and politics in the contemporary history of Afghanistan is undeniable. The elders of Sofia always have a special place in the political and power apparatus of Afghanistan. They have played an important role in deposing and installing kings and emirs and legitimizing their power. As mentioned, Ahmad Shah Abdali was a follower of Naqshbandiyya sect and he established the tradition of coronation and turban cermony by the Sufis elders. He enlisted the support of Sufi masters to persuade his followers and disciples in the fields of warfare and politics. But his sons and descendants could not use the capacity of the Sufis like him. With the arrival of Muhammadzais, the amirs of that time also maintained the relations by establishing causal links through marriages with the Sufi families, in order to gain their support. With the invasion of British troops into Afghanistan, a new chapter was established in the relationship between the Sufis and the government, and the Sufis took a step with political and jihadist movements established in the political and power scene of Afghanistan and engaged in armed struggle with the aggressor forces and their internal agents. In general, elders and followers of Naqshbandiyya and Qadiriya sects have been more involved in the politics and power system of Afghanistan than other sects. Basically, in the contemporary history of Afghanistan, apart from legitimizing the political government, Sufi leaders played a prominent role in resolving the family disputes of the nobles or taking power by the local rulers. Sometimes they themselves had a place in the governing body. But with the passage of time and the involvement of new elements and factors in the political situation of Afghanistan, it seems that the influence of this group in politics and power has decreased compared to the past. The responsible factors can be analyzed in other research works.
Conclusion: The results of the research show that the connection between Sufism and politics has always been accompanied by ups and downs since the beginning of Ahmad Shah's reign. he had a good relation with other Sufis. The Sufis also supported him during his campaigns. But with the invasion of British forces and then Russia into Afghanistan, the Sufis rushed to the political and power scene of Afghanistan with greater coordination and started an armed struggle against the aggressor forces and their internal agents. In addition, Sufis have played an important and prominent role in various political and governmental positions in recent years.