بررسی تطبیقی جایگاه ارتباطی خاورمیانۀ شمالی با آسیای مرکزی در مقایسه با سایر حوزه‌های خاورمیانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه شیراز

2 کارشناس ارشد مطالعات منطقه‌ای، دانشگاه شیراز

3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

خاورمیانة شمالی مفهومی ژئوپلیتیکی است که با تحولات جدید، امکان ظهور آن در بخشی از خاورمیانه فراهم آمده است. این بررسی تلاشی است برای بررسی شاخص‌های ارتباطی این حوزه (خوشه) از خاورمیانه با آسیای مرکزی در مقایسه با سایر حوزه‌ها و ترسیم چگالی ارتباطی و شبکه‌سازی درونی و فراشبکه‌ای آن در خاورمیانه. بدین‌سان در پاسخ به پرسش چگونگی ارتباطات امنیتی و اقتصادی خاورمیانة شمالی (ایران، ترکیه، عراق، افغانستان و پاکستان)، فرض مهم، آن است که این خوشۀ جدید، گسترده‌ترین ارتباطات درون‌شبکه‌ای را در خاورمیانه عرضه می‌کند. بیشترین ارتباطات درون‌‌منطقه‌ای آن با آسیای مرکزی­در حوزۀ ژئوپلیتیکی و برخی از شاخص‌های ژئواکونومیکی و در مرتبۀ بعد با شورای همکاری خلیج فارس در شاخص ژئواکونومیکی است. این ارتباطات در قالب عناصر درون‌شبکه‌ای (چگالی ارتباطات تجاری بین خوشه‌ای، پیمان‌های حقوقی اقتصادی، سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی، انرژی، ارتباطات حمل‌و‌نقل) شاخص‌بندی می‌شود. هدف، نشان‌ دادن اهمیت تغییر در نگاه به سازه‌های خاورمیانه برای سیاست خارجی ایران است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study about Communicative Situation of the North Middle East with Central Asia in Comparison with Other Areas of the Middle East

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Abbasi 1
  • Bahareh Pourjan 2
  • Ali Mandegar 3
1 Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Shiraz, Iran
2 MA in Regional Studies, University of Shiraz, Iran
3 PhD Student of Geopolitics, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study attempts to present the influence of new geopolitical developments in the boundaries of the Middle East. In the new era, geopolitics is an important factor in understanding the developments. So far, the Middle East has been defined on the basis of traditional studies of regionalism including the presence of superpowers and geographical criteria. For this, the region has been divided into some sections including Persian Gulf, CIS, East Mediterranean, North Africa, Caucasia, and Western South Asia. New developments have changed these divisions. But the classical regional studies cannot explain these developments. The research tries to discuss these changes in the Middle East on the shadow of new developments of regional studies to define a new structure for the Middle East. In the theory of network, communications is replaced by geography. North Middle East is a geopolitical concept emerged with new developments in the area of the Middle East. This study is an attempt to examine the communicational indicators of this area (cluster) with Central Asia in comparison with the other areas of the Middle East. This research also draws communicational intensity of internal networking and extra networks in the Middle East.
North Middle East is a geopolitical concept that has emerged with new developments in an area of the Middle East. Network theory and its models provide the possibility of this new structuring. This study is an attempt to examine the communicational indicators of North Middle East (cluster) in comparison with other areas of the Middle East. Therefore, the security (geopolitical), economic (geo-economics), and identity (geocultural) communications of the North Middle East (Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan) with the other areas of the Middle East suggests that this new cluster offers the largest intra network communications in the Middle East. Most regional communication of this cluster within the region is with Central Asia and Persian Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Also, extra regional communications for networking has been with China and South Asia or India. Therefore, the polarity of the regional network is focused on the communication flows on this cluster of the Middle East. The communication is classified in the form of geo-political, geo-economical (the intensity of business communication between the clusters, multilateral and bilateral legal-economic agreements, foreign investment, energy, transit communications) and geo -cultural (Islamic fundamentalism and ethnic conflict) intra network elements. This study is focused on economic relations and uses the causality-explanation methodology of the network theoretical model in order to explain the intra networks of mobility communication in this area of the Middle East. It can also receive its information resources with content analysis of business, transit and security statistics; from libraries, and internal and external sites. Therefore, the theoretical model is to explain the network formation of the North Middle East. The results have demonstrated the geo-political, geo-economical and geo-cultural elements of this network with quantitative data and their analysis. Finally, the aim of this research shows the importance of changes in looking at structures of Middle East for foreign policy of Iran. The structure has more compatibility with Iranian culture, civilization, identity and economy.
The research has three sections. In the first section, this article presents an approach termed "Network Theory" and an annalistic model about "The north Middle East". It introduces the internal and external variability in the multilateral relations of Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The second section consists of the indicators of the north Middle East in comparison with other clusters of the Middle East including the Central Asia, the Persian Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), East Mediterranean (shamat), Caucasia, North Africa, China and South Asia. The third section is focused on the relationship between the north Middle East and the Central Asia. Finally, the research findings present policies for policymakers.
The new emerging order in the Middle East has caused challenges and opportunities that classical theories of regionalism cannot explain these developments. This study uses "Network Theory" and relevant models to show that we should change traditional boundaries in the Middle East. Therefore, we can define a new structure in the Middle East as “The North Middle East”. This structure is different from other sections and has some features including the core of Middle East, economic and security communications, and complimentary economic. Based on the statistics presented in this research, the North Middle East and the Central Asia have the most intensity in some indicators including energy transition, road transition, geo-cultural and geo-political relations. They can form a new geo-politics and geo-economic order. Consequently, integration respective in The Middle East has been stated with new definition in structures of the region. The Middle East has an unstable network and we cannot receive integrity in the area. Therefore, we should reinforce communications among the clusters of the region. The history of foreign relations and the new developments in early 21st century have prepared the opportunity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Afghanistan
  • Caucasia
  • the Central Asia
  • communicational intensity
  • Energy
  • Export
  • GCC
  • Import
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • The Middle East
  • Network theory
  • the North Middle East
  • Pakistan
  • road and energy transition
  • Turkey
1. Abbasi, Ebrahim (2014), “The North Middle East: A New Structure for Cooperation in the Regional Network of the Middle East”, Global Politics Quarterly, Vol.3, No.1 (7), pp.115-159.
2. Brzezinski, Z (1999), Game Plan; How to Conduct the U.S. – Soviet Contest, Translate by M. Rezaeian, Tehran: Office of Political and International Studies.
3. Carkoglu,A & Eder & Kirisci (1998), The Political Economy of Regional Cooperation in the Middle East, New York: Routledge.
4. Cohen.S.B. (2009), Geopolitics of World System, Translated by Abbass kardan, Tehran:  Abrare Moaser Institute.
5. Doak,J & Karadimitriou (2007), “Development, Complexity & Network: A Framework For Research”, Urban Studies, Vol.44. No.2, pp.209-229.
6. Dvkrdyh, Bruno (1998), “Organization for Economic Cooperation: Rise of the New Silk Road on the Ruins of the Cold War?” , Translated by Amir Homayoun Saffarzadeh, Central Asia and the Caucasus Studies, Vol.7, No.3(22), pp:145-163.
7. Fuller. G.E. (1998), The Center of The Universe: The Geopolitics of Iran, Translated by A. Mokhber, Tehran: Markaz.
8. Ghasemi, F (2005), “Geopolitical Model of Regional Security: A Case Study of the Middle East”, Geopolitics, Vol.6, No. 2(18), pp.57-94.
9. Ghasemi, F & S.J.Salehi (2007), Theoretical Approach on Persian Gulf & Its Problems, Tehran: Center for Scientific Research and Middle East Strategic Studies.
Ghasemi, F. (2011), Theories of International Relations and Regional Studies, Tehran: Mizan Legal Foundation.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie & Kahler, Miles & Montgomery, Alexander. (2009), “Network Analysis for International Relations”, International Organization, Vol.63, No.3, pp.559-592.
Hakimian, H. (2005), The Middle East and West of Asia, in Collection of Hakimian & Moshaver, Z (2005) State and Global Evolution: The Political Economy of Transition in the Middle East, Translated by,  Hatami Tehran : Kavir Publication.
Kemp, J and Saunders (2005), “America, Russia and the Middle East: Challenges and Opportunities”, Translated by Salehi, Regional Studies, Vol.6, No. 23 & 24, pp.63-96.
Khojastehnia, H. (2010), Iran, Afghanistan, the Rail Connection; Introduction to Multidimensional Mechanism for Regional Cooperation, Foreign Relations, Vol.2, No.5, pp.155-197.
Koulaee, E (2005), “Fields of Islamic Fundamentalism in Central Asia”, Political Science, Vol.67, No.1, pp.201-224.
Lotfian, Z (2012), Iran's Strategic Overlapping Network Impact on Its Regional Diplomacy, M. A. Thesis, Shiraz University, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences.
Mohseni, R (2011), “The Role of Transportation and Transition of Goods in Iran’s Economy, Case Study: CIS”, Parliament and Research, Vol.18, No.66, pp.109-145.
Mojtehedzadeh, P. (1992), Countries and Borders in the Geopolitical Region of Persian Gulf, Translated by Malek Mohammadi, Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Nasiri, H. (2008), “The Study of the Position of Iran and the Rival Countries in World & Regional Trades (with Emphasis on the Development of the East)”, Politics Quarterly, Vol.38, No.3, pp.349-377.
Nuri Ozlap, O. (2011), “Where is the Middle East? The Definition and Classification Problem of the Middle East as a Regional Subsystem in International Relations”, Turkish Journal of Politics, Vol.2, No.2, pp.5-21.
Shirazi, A & Ghorbani & Simbar (2011), Politics and Government in the Middle East, Tehran: Samt and TarbiatMoalem University.
Shirazi, A (2005),”The Development of Relations between Iran and Central Asia, Providing Strategies”, the Journal of Geography and Development, Vol.3, No.5, pp.111-140.
Taylor,P.J. (1991), Political Geography, World-Economy, Nation-state & Locality, Harlow: Longman.
Toyserkani, M. (2009), “Analysis of the Soft Power of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Central Asia by Comparison with the Middle East”, Central Asia and the Caucasus Studies, Vol.15, No.67, pp.21-56.
Wasserman,S & Fasut (1994), Social Network Analysis: Methods & Applications, Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.
ZandMoghadam, M. & Salmanian (2010), Reviving the Silk Road and Its Role in the Development of Islamic Global Markets, in 4th International Congress of the Islamic Word Geographers, pp.1-13.
http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2&Topic=3 (Accessed on: 5/11/2013).
http://farsi.tpo.ir/index.aspx?siteid=1&fkeyid=&siteid=1&pageid=352 (Accessed on: (5/11/2012).
http://www.trademap.org /export & import (Accessed on: 5/11/2013).
http://www.theodora.com/world-fact-book,current economy profile (Accessed on: 5/11/2013).
http://www.economy.gov.tr/index.cfm?sayfa=countriesandregions&country=AF&region=5 (Accessed on: 6/9/2011).
http://www.tccb.gov.tr/pages/visits/tap (Accessed on: 6/9/2011).
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/sub.en.mfa?76d62f3c-2909-437e-ad13-8d08282270ce (Accessed on: 6/9/2011).
http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/oil-review-by-energy-type.html&...... natural-gas-review-by-energy-type.html (Accessed on: 5/11/2013).
http://www.world-fact-book,current economy profile (Accessed on: 5/10/2015).