عنوان مقاله [English]
This study attempts to present the influence of new geopolitical developments in the boundaries of the Middle East. In the new era, geopolitics is an important factor in understanding the developments. So far, the Middle East has been defined on the basis of traditional studies of regionalism including the presence of superpowers and geographical criteria. For this, the region has been divided into some sections including Persian Gulf, CIS, East Mediterranean, North Africa, Caucasia, and Western South Asia. New developments have changed these divisions. But the classical regional studies cannot explain these developments. The research tries to discuss these changes in the Middle East on the shadow of new developments of regional studies to define a new structure for the Middle East. In the theory of network, communications is replaced by geography. North Middle East is a geopolitical concept emerged with new developments in the area of the Middle East. This study is an attempt to examine the communicational indicators of this area (cluster) with Central Asia in comparison with the other areas of the Middle East. This research also draws communicational intensity of internal networking and extra networks in the Middle East.
North Middle East is a geopolitical concept that has emerged with new developments in an area of the Middle East. Network theory and its models provide the possibility of this new structuring. This study is an attempt to examine the communicational indicators of North Middle East (cluster) in comparison with other areas of the Middle East. Therefore, the security (geopolitical), economic (geo-economics), and identity (geocultural) communications of the North Middle East (Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan) with the other areas of the Middle East suggests that this new cluster offers the largest intra network communications in the Middle East. Most regional communication of this cluster within the region is with Central Asia and Persian Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Also, extra regional communications for networking has been with China and South Asia or India. Therefore, the polarity of the regional network is focused on the communication flows on this cluster of the Middle East. The communication is classified in the form of geo-political, geo-economical (the intensity of business communication between the clusters, multilateral and bilateral legal-economic agreements, foreign investment, energy, transit communications) and geo -cultural (Islamic fundamentalism and ethnic conflict) intra network elements. This study is focused on economic relations and uses the causality-explanation methodology of the network theoretical model in order to explain the intra networks of mobility communication in this area of the Middle East. It can also receive its information resources with content analysis of business, transit and security statistics; from libraries, and internal and external sites. Therefore, the theoretical model is to explain the network formation of the North Middle East. The results have demonstrated the geo-political, geo-economical and geo-cultural elements of this network with quantitative data and their analysis. Finally, the aim of this research shows the importance of changes in looking at structures of Middle East for foreign policy of Iran. The structure has more compatibility with Iranian culture, civilization, identity and economy.
The research has three sections. In the first section, this article presents an approach termed "Network Theory" and an annalistic model about "The north Middle East". It introduces the internal and external variability in the multilateral relations of Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The second section consists of the indicators of the north Middle East in comparison with other clusters of the Middle East including the Central Asia, the Persian Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), East Mediterranean (shamat), Caucasia, North Africa, China and South Asia. The third section is focused on the relationship between the north Middle East and the Central Asia. Finally, the research findings present policies for policymakers.
The new emerging order in the Middle East has caused challenges and opportunities that classical theories of regionalism cannot explain these developments. This study uses "Network Theory" and relevant models to show that we should change traditional boundaries in the Middle East. Therefore, we can define a new structure in the Middle East as “The North Middle East”. This structure is different from other sections and has some features including the core of Middle East, economic and security communications, and complimentary economic. Based on the statistics presented in this research, the North Middle East and the Central Asia have the most intensity in some indicators including energy transition, road transition, geo-cultural and geo-political relations. They can form a new geo-politics and geo-economic order. Consequently, integration respective in The Middle East has been stated with new definition in structures of the region. The Middle East has an unstable network and we cannot receive integrity in the area. Therefore, we should reinforce communications among the clusters of the region. The history of foreign relations and the new developments in early 21st century have prepared the opportunity.