آسیب‌شناسی مدیریت خدمات فرهنگی در تاجیکستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد اقتصاد دانشگاه ملی تاجیکستان

2 دانشجوی دکتری رشتۀ مدیریت، دانشکدۀ اقتصاد و ادارۀ دانشگاه ملی تاجیکستان

چکیده

خدمات فرهنگی به‌عنوان بخشی از خدمات اجتماعی و بر اساس تجربۀ داخلی و خارجی از نظر تأثیر آن بر جامعه، نشان‌دهندۀ عنصری درخور توجه از توسعۀ ملی است. در این مطالعه وضعیت خدمات فرهنگی تاجیکستان با شاخص‌های مربوط به فضاهای فرهنگی و هنری و میزان دسترسی به آن‌ها بررسی می‌شود. مقایسۀ رشد یک دورۀ زمانی و چگونگی تغییرها در ارائۀ خدمات فرهنگی به شناخت بهتری از مدیریت خدمات فرهنگی در تاجیکستان کمک می‌کند. میزان دسترسی، بهره‌برداری و کیفیت ارائۀ خدمات و فعالیت‌های فرهنگی و هنری با توجه به نیازهای جامعه و نیز استانداردهای مدنظر در این مورد نقش مهمی ایفا می‌کند. در تاجیکستان چند نوع فعالیت و خدمت فرهنگی وجود دارد که به‌عنوان شاخص‌های ارزیابی میزان و کیفیت رشد و توسعۀ آن‌ها متأثر از شیوۀ مدیریت فرهنگی و نحوۀ ارائۀ آن‌ها است از جمله: کتابخانه‌‌‌های عمومی، مجتمع‌‌‌های فرهنگی و هنری، سالن‌‌‌های سینما، سالن‌‌‌های تئاتر، نمایش و موسیقی، موزه‌ها و چاپ کتاب، مجله و روزنامه. این نوشتار تلاش دارد تا با بررسی این شاخص‌ها در نهایت برای ارتقا و توسعه با توجه به نگاه ملی و بین‌المللی و چالش‌‌‌های پیشرو راه­کارهایی پیشنهاد دهد. روش تحقیق مبتنی است بر مشاهدۀ بخش‌هایی از فعالیت‌‌‌های فرهنگی و هنری، بررسی داده‌‌‌های منابع رسمی، انجام مصاحبه با کارشناسان. این مطالعه بیانگر آن است که عملکرد دستگاه فرهنگی و هنری تاجیکستان پاسخی اندک به نیاز امروز جامعه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Pathology Management Cultural Services in Tajikistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sirajedin Kamullof 1
  • Gholamreza Asadikord 2
1 Professor of Economics, National University of Tajikistan
2 PhD Student of Management, Faculty of Economics and Administration, National University of Tajikistan
چکیده [English]

Cultural services, as part of social services and based on internal and external experience, in terms of their impact on society, represent a significant element of national development. In this study, the status of Tajikistan's cultural services is examined with indicators related to cultural and artistic spheres and their access to them. Comparing the growth of a period and how it changes in the provision of cultural services will help to improve understanding of the management of cultural services in Tajikistan. Accessibility, utilization, quality of services, cultural and artistic activities play an important role in meeting the needs of society as well as the standards in question.
The service function of the cultural sector and its evaluation can help the users of information, policymakers and operators to improve understanding of the growth of the cultural sector. The present study aims at investigating the current situation, explaining and analyzing the development trends of the most important spaces, activities of the cultural, artistic sector and aims to answer the main question of the research: How to access and grow cultural services through Performance indicators are responding? One of the most important tools for determining the strengths and weaknesses of performance is evaluating the performance of organizations, this is important by analyzing the evaluation of performance indicators. In this study, we use the above indicators to answer the question "How does the rate of the growth of cultural services of Tajik cultural institutes provide accessibility for the people of the community?"
According to the preliminary studies and available evidence, the research hypothesis suggests that the availability, utilization and quality of the provision of services, cultural and artistic activities are not responsive to the standards in question and are not in accordance with the needs of the community. Therefore, the main hypothesis is that "there is no correlation between access to cultural spaces, services and their growth rates in the Tajik Cultural Organization".
The service function of cultural devices is one of the tools for human development. In conditions of growth, there are problems that can result from inappropriate management practices. Hence, identifying growth indices, access and participation ratios are the most appropriate ways to evaluate the performance of the cultural sector.
The pathology of managing cultural services in Tajikistan is a systematic effort through the evaluation, measurement of performance and activity of indicators to determine how far the government's cultural services in Tajikistan are responding to the needs of the people and how the extent to which the state's ability to meet cultural needs is. Undoubtedly, the status, role of evaluation and management systems in organizations have long been characterized and paid attention. In recent years, the complexity, speed of operation, flexibility, competition and responsiveness against citizens and clients have become more effective than value and it has gotten twice as important. The domination and consolidation of the socio-cultural approach to mission, processes, services, products and outcomes lead to the organization of desirable affairs, coordination and synergy. Meanwhile, measuring the effectiveness of the social programs of the Tajik Cultural Device through an optimal system of performance assessment increases the coherence, accountability of the programs.
There are several types of cultural activities and services in Tajikistan that serve as indicators for assessing the quality and development of them, which are influenced by the way of cultural management and how they are presented, including: public libraries, cultural and artistic complexes, Cinema halls, theaters, shows and music, museums and publishing books, magazines and newspapers. This paper tries to examine proposed indicators for the promotion and development with a view to national and international perspectives and the challenges ahead.
The research methodology is based on observing parts of cultural and artistic activities, reviewing data from official sources, conducting interviews with experts. This research is of a practical nature according to the subject and the question and its results can be exploited in practice (policy and planning). In terms of research data, descriptive observation and examination of documents are performed by evaluating performance indicators to help and assure the decision-making process through interviewing, viewing and reviewing documents. For data collection, data from cultural institutions providing cultural services and the official system of the Tajik Presidential Statistics Committee for the period 2011-2016 have been used and analyzed in the form of growth rates tables. For a theoretical discussion of books, Persian and foreign articles have been used.
The reflection of the imbalance between Tajikistan's physical and cultural spaces during the past years has been discussed in this article. This study shows that the Tajik cultural and artistic device lacks the proper function of meeting the needs of today's society.
In some cases, where there is relatively good cultural space, the lack of cultural and artistic production with supply and display spaces makes it possible to have easy access and participation as two more important indicators of cultural development. Among other major challenges facing the development of cultural and artistic spheres, the weakness, lack of advanced equipments, facilities, the lack of efficient, adequate skillful people for management, business affairs and ultimately the government's exclusive sovereignty over cultural and artistic space are other major challenges in the process. The main problem lies in the fact that social and cultural competitions are either not fully developed or not rarely developed.
Ultimately, the problem is that the results of cultural activities and their impact on social welfare are neither immediate nor direct, and require a complex system for self-assessment. The fact is that governments, without interfering in culture, should formulate a social order for services in the field of culture. In this regard, by using scientific and technical standards in creating cultural space and improving the quality of cultural products and creating cultural attractions, it is possible to expand the attraction of the audience for the prosperity, promotion of the cultural sector, the consolidation of the cultural services market at the national level, the possibility for access and the participation of more people.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultural consumption
  • Cultural Services
  • management
  • pathology
  • Tajikistan
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