پوتین و پرسش از حکمرانی جهانی، ایده‌ها و اصول

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رشت

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رشت

چکیده

تمرکز این مقاله بر حکمرانی جهانی است؛ مفهومی که در بیشتر مواقع به معنای مدیریت امور جهانی، چگونگی و شیوۀ برخورد با مناقشه‌ها و بحران‌ها به‌کار می‌رود. فهم تغییراتی که در سیاست و روابط میان روسیه و غرب به رهبری ایالات متحد آمریکا به‌ویژه پس از سال 2014 رخ داده است، به ابزاری نیاز دارد که حکمرانی جهانی، به‌مثابۀ سطح تحلیل، می‌تواند به درک آن کمک کند. روسیه به رهبری پوتین ضمن چالش‌های هنجاری و ساختاری نسبت به حکمرانی جهانی، در پی اصلاح، بازنگری و حذف برخی از اصول و قواعد حاکم بر حکمرانی جهانی است. در این نوشتار با استفاده از روش پژوهش کیفی و به کمک نمونه‌پژوهی به‌دنبال پاسخ این پرسش هستیم که چشم‌انداز روسیه از حکمرانی جهانی چیست و چه ایده‌هایی در این زمینه مطرح کرده است؟ در پاسخ بیان می‌شود که چشم‌انداز روسیه از حکمرانی جهانی سلطۀ غرب و حاکمیت نظم نولیبرال به رهبری آمریکا است. مواردی چون تأکید بر نقش سازندۀ سازمان ملل در حل‌وفصل منازعه‌ها، واگذاری حکمرانی در سطح منطقه‌ای، اهمیت حقوق بین‌الملل سنتی در تعریف قواعد و قوانین بین‌المللی، نگاه وستفالیایی به حاکمیت، اصلاح قواعد و رویه‌های حاکم بر رژیم‌های پولی، مالی و اقتصادی و سرانجام نقش محوری شورای امنیت در توسل به زور را می‌توان از مهم‌ترین ایده‌ها و اصول روسیه از حکمرانی جهانی برشمرد. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که روسیه، معماری حکمرانی جهانی را در موضوع‌های مختلف سیاسی، اقتصادی، امنیتی، نهادی و منطقه‌ای در پیش گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Putin and the Questions of Global Governance; Ideas and Principles

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Rouhi 1
  • Mohammad Hussian Moradi Parsa 2
1 , Assistant Professor. Department of Political Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 M.A. in Regional Studies, Department of Political Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

 Introduction: The term global governance is a concept that refers to e management of international affairs and how to deal with conflicts and crises. Understanding dynamics of Western-Russian relations as the United States takes the lead of the former, given the changes it has undergone since 2014, requires global governance as a measure of research. This scale of analysis can provide an understanding of the circumstances at hand. Under Putin's presence in world government, Russia faces common structural and normative challenges. It has intended to adjust, revise or remove some of the precedence governing dynamics of international politics and relations at the global level. From the kremlin's perspective, the global governance is but the dominance of the West and a Neo-liberal order with the Americans at the helm. Having mentioned that, Russians insist on a productive role of the United Nations in resolving conflicts, recognizing authority at the regional scale, classic interpretation of international relations in defining its norms, and finally, recognizing sovereignty through a Westphalian lens. The Russians have also announced that they will update both the rules governing financial and monetary regimes and the UN Security Council, which legitimizes the use of force in times of need.
Research Questions: The main question of this research is to find an answer to the views, ideas, and principles of Russia in the Putin era towards world government and how can it be explained?
Research Hypotheses: Russia's view of world governance is parallel to a hegemonic goal and in essence, equates with the Neo-Liberal-American order. Ideas including an excessive role of the United Nations in resolving conflicts, reinforcing the classic international law, deescalating global governance to a regional level, setting the official and unofficial regulations in financial and monetary affairs worldwide, conceptualizing sovereignty according to that of Westphalia, the role of regional organizations as security providers, the UN Security Council's exclusive right to use force could be one of the most important issues for Russia, which is worth theorizing. These issues can be explained in terms of value, normative, institutional, economic, and security.
Research Methodology: This research is based on a case study. This approach can be included in the historical analysis of a phenomenon, conducting quantitative and qualitative research on it, procedures, conducting research on sample characteristics, and studying the phenomenon/sample. Moreover, this approach follows the causal dynamics of events/examples/phenomena at its core. To gain a deeper understanding of normative issues in world affairs and to compare them with the Russian perspective, the described method was used, which also enables us to identify reasons, motives, and procedures why Russia in some cases acts following the norms of the world sovereignty and attacks against others.
Theoretical Framework: Academic discussions on world affairs began with the ideas of American political scientist James Rosenau. In his work, he argues that in the post-international world, actors are confronted with multiple spheres of power in which the dynamics imposed by international politics and its changes can be interpreted by global governance as a framework. Rosenau explicitly states that the distribution of power and the structures of the international organization are what govern the world over time. In most of the definitions regarding global governance, it is described as a mechanism for resolving conflicts. Weiss and Wilkinson define it as a combination of ideas, values, norms, precedence, and organizations, official and unofficial, which assist all actors, whether state actors, international organizations, or even civil society, to resolve issues that transcend borders. Global governance economics also covers environmental security, human rights, and civil society.
Results and Discussion: The study shows that Russian officials in recent years have denounced US law enforcement methods and criticized its unilateralism around the world and in Eurasia. It has also been argued that regional sovereignty and world governance have long been a recognized norm of Westphalian international law and are now within United Nations principles. Theoretical concepts, especially governance in areas including security, institutions, norms, economy, and environment, are what has been produced in the Russian political lexicon:
1- Russia's perception of the structure of world government is based on realism, so it is based on the state. Putin himself believes that the United States cannot form a world government, so he tries to maintain a conservative, nationalist and authoritarian order. In addition to governments, international organizations also play a very important role in world governance with Putin focusing on the United Nations as the main regulator of international relations.
2- Russian officials believe that global governance has been facing challenges at a global scale. Thus, introducing governance responsibilities at the regional level helps address these challenges.
3- Russia's position on international law is Westphalian. Russia and China prefer (hard) rule or totalitarian rule to good government and protection of human rights.
4- Putin criticizes liberal democracy as the driving force behind the norms of international law, but his goal is to democratize international relations, thus pursuing a change in the process of world governance.
5- Regarding the role of the economy in global governance, Putin is adjusting and reconstructing. This position suggests revisionism of the monetary and financial systems. He pursues to change the architecture of international monetary and economic organizations.
6- In this perspective for global governance, the regional player plays a key role as a provider of security. In this regard, Russia uses the role of the UN Security Council in the use of force.
7- Russia's view of world government has few elements in common with the West. Differences are visible in certain places. This is because they are derived separately from two separate systems. Thus, Russia can be considered a norm-breaker and invalidator of the principles and rules governing Western international relations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Putin
  • "Westphalia Sovereignty"
  • "Global Governance"
  • Regional Governance
  • "
  • "Economic Governance"
  • "Security Governance"