عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Identity Issue was a crucial issue in Post-Soviet Russia between the scholars. Some scholars see Russia as an existing entity tasked with testing different socio-political contexts because identity-building is complex to face serious and new challenges. Contrary to view as mentioned above and other scholars who believe that identity has changed in the post-Soviet era, we say that identity as a dynamic concept is the basis of socio-political actions. While the identity is based on the indicators of "authoritarianism and great power" in Russia in the three historical periods of the Tsars, the Soviet Union, the post-Soviet unions (modern Russia), it has continued and will continue in the future.
Research question: How has the collapse of the USSR affected the Russian leaders and nation's perception of National Identity?
Research hypothesis: This hypothesis suggests the collapse of the Soviet Union, and although it has changed borders and geopolitics, the perceptions of Russian leaders and nations based on authoritarianism and the concepts of great power have continued.
The Methodology: Data collection method in this study is based on the library documentary. Analysis of the data will be performed in the format of the interpretative approach of the historic-comparative method, which Theda Skocpol emphasizes. As in this method, historical comparisons are made on the validity of keywords, throughout the article, keywords such as "authoritarianism", "nationalism", "great power", and "national identity" are analyzed in three historical periods. The hypothesis test is applied based on the concept of identity in constructive theory. The theory is based on an interpretive approach and finally the hypothesis is confirmed based on the method and theory.
Result and Discussion: Russian identity on the basis of authoritarianism factor on the national level rooted in the religious thinking in the Tsar era, which developed under the Byzantine. This thought made to parallel the "God & TSARS" idea. Although dissatisfaction was the main factor among people in the Soviet era, making the industrial economy & overcoming Nazi Germany-made to become Stalin popular more and more even today. Putin created public satisfaction in modern Russia by overcoming internal challenges such as corruption, making rules sovereignty, making security. In addition, Putin called himself a "patriot" increased his popularity among Russians till 2021. Great Power on the international level has been described based on Tsar's dominance over north to south and their expansionism idea as a whole. In Soviet era, the characteristics of power policy changed basically and the leaders introduced themselves as Communist revolution leading and leader of Communism World. Putin understood the “Great Power” concept as a historical & holy pillar of Russian identity. He believed that other powers, especially the West, had to accept Russia and respect him (as a great power) regardless of its economic and technological conditions Studying these facts about Russia on the national and international level from Tsar to the modern era showed that Russian Identity based on "authoritarianism" and "Great Power" has continuously affected the minds of Russian foreign policymakers and nations. So, we can get the result that the collapse of the Soviet Union did not follow independent national Identity.
Conclusion: Studying Russian Identity based on "authoritarianism" and "Great Power" has continuously affected the minds of Russian foreign policymakers and nations. So, the collapse of the Soviet Union did not make following independent national identity. Although borders have changed in the post-Soviet era and new republics have been created, Putin exercised authoritarianism within the (self) state and was accepted by the people within the (other) nation. Russia's position as a great power is a part of Russian Identity, which mainly lies in the Russian identity understanding in the Tsar and Soviet-Union eras and plays a crucial role in the post-Soviet period. In Tsarist Russia, the perception of great power belonged to the leader of the Orthodox world and sometimes its expansion to other regions. The role of Moscow in the Soviet Union is emphasized in the leader of the communist world and finally, Putin understood the "great power" concept as a historic pillar of Russian identity which other powers especially the west has to accept and respect regardless of his economic and technological position. Finally, we must return to the basic hypothesis of constructivists such as Alexander Went, who states: "Identity is a mental personality rooted in the actor's understanding of himself and others. It can be added that border and geopolitical changes have not affected this perception.