هویت ملی روسیه در دوران پساشوروی؛ تغییر یا تداوم هویتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه روابط بین الملل، دانشکده علوم سیاسی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه روابط بین الملل، دانشکده علوم سیاسی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

چکیده

فدراسیون روسیه با فروپاشی اتحاد شوروی شکل گرفت، اما دولتی قدیمی محسوب می‌شود که برخلاف تغییر مکرر نامش، از دیدگاه هویتی توانسته است در سه دورۀ اصلی تاریخ، تزارها، شوروی و پساشوری (روسیۀ مدرن) ویژگی‌های اصلی هویتی خود را حفظ کند. به‌ بیانی، ورود روسیه از دوره‌ای به دورۀ دیگر که نخست با انقلاب 1917 و سپس با فروپاشی همراه بود، سبب شد در ساختار و فرهنگ سیاسی دولت تغییر ایجاد شود، اما شاخص‌های اصلی هویت روسی دچار تغییر نشده است؛ زیرا تعریف هویت روسی بر اساس شاخص‌ ملی (اقتدارطلبی) و بین‌المللی (قدرت بزرگ) از عصر تزارها تا استالین و پوتین در عصر مدرن تداوم دارد. نمادهای عینی این شاخص‌ها در دورۀ پساشوروی آشکار است که از نظر بیشتر نویسندگان، روسیه در اوج سرگشتگی هویتی و در تلاش برای یافتن هویتی مستقل به‌سر می‌برد. با توجه به آنچه گفتیم، این پرسش مطرح می‌شود که چگونه فروپاشی اتحاد شوروی بر ادراک رهبران و مردم روسیه در مورد هویت ملی اثر گذاشت؟ در پاسخ این فرضیه مطرح می‌شود که فروپاشی اتحاد شوروی مرزها و وابستگی‌های شوروی را دچار تغییر و فروپاشی کرد، اما ادراک مردم و رهبران از مفهوم هویت ملی بر اساس اقتدارطلبی و قدرت بزرگ از دوره‌های پیشین تداوم یافته و دچار تغییر نشده است. در این نوشتار تبیین و تحلیل موضوع را با استفاده از رویکرد تفسیری روش تاریخی‌- تطبیقی و آزمون فرضیه را در چارچوب نظریۀ سازه‌انگاری با تأکید بر مؤلفۀ هویت انجام می‌دهیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Russia's National Identity in the Post-Soviet Era; Change or Continuity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Soltani 1
  • Zohreh Khanmohammadi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Political Science, Tehran Central Branch, Azad Islamic University
2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of International Relations, Faculty of Political Science, Tehran Central Branch, Azad Islamic University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Identity Issue was a crucial issue in Post-Soviet Russia between the scholars. Some scholars see Russia as an existing entity tasked with testing different socio-political contexts because identity-building is complex to face serious and new challenges. Contrary to view as mentioned above and other scholars who believe that identity has changed in the post-Soviet era, we say that identity as a dynamic concept is the basis of socio-political actions. While the identity is based on the indicators of "authoritarianism and great power" in Russia in the three historical periods of the Tsars, the Soviet Union, the post-Soviet unions (modern Russia), it has continued and will continue in the future.
Research question: How has the collapse of the USSR affected the Russian leaders and nation's perception of National Identity?
 Research hypothesis: This hypothesis suggests the collapse of the Soviet Union, and although it has changed borders and geopolitics, the perceptions of Russian leaders and nations based on authoritarianism and the concepts of great power have continued.
The Methodology: Data collection method in this study is based on the library documentary. Analysis of the data will be performed in the format of the interpretative approach of the historic-comparative method, which Theda Skocpol emphasizes. As in this method, historical comparisons are made on the validity of keywords, throughout the article, keywords such as "authoritarianism", "nationalism", "great power", and "national identity" are analyzed in three historical periods. The hypothesis test is applied based on the concept of identity in constructive theory. The theory is based on an interpretive approach and finally the hypothesis is confirmed based on the method and theory.
Result and Discussion: Russian identity on the basis of authoritarianism factor on the national level rooted in the religious thinking in the Tsar era, which developed under the Byzantine. This thought made to parallel the "God & TSARS" idea. Although dissatisfaction was the main factor among people in the Soviet era, making the industrial economy & overcoming Nazi Germany-made to become Stalin popular more and more even today. Putin created public satisfaction in modern Russia by overcoming internal challenges such as corruption, making rules sovereignty, making security. In addition, Putin called himself a "patriot" increased his popularity among Russians till 2021. Great Power on the international level has been described based on Tsar's dominance over north to south and their expansionism idea as a whole. In Soviet era, the characteristics of power policy changed basically and the leaders introduced themselves as Communist revolution leading and leader of Communism World. Putin understood the “Great Power” concept as a historical & holy pillar of Russian identity. He believed that other powers, especially the West, had to accept Russia and respect him (as a great power) regardless of its economic and technological conditions Studying these facts about Russia on the national and international level from Tsar to the modern era showed that Russian Identity based on "authoritarianism" and "Great Power" has continuously affected the minds of Russian foreign policymakers and nations. So, we can get the result that the collapse of the Soviet Union did not follow independent national Identity.
Conclusion: Studying Russian Identity based on "authoritarianism" and "Great Power" has continuously affected the minds of Russian foreign policymakers and nations. So, the collapse of the Soviet Union did not make following independent national identity. Although borders have changed in the post-Soviet era and new republics have been created, Putin exercised authoritarianism within the (self) state and was accepted by the people within the (other) nation. Russia's position as a great power is a part of Russian Identity, which mainly lies in the Russian identity understanding in the Tsar and Soviet-Union eras and plays a crucial role in the post-Soviet period. In Tsarist Russia, the perception of great power belonged to the leader of the Orthodox world and sometimes its expansion to other regions. The role of Moscow in the Soviet Union is emphasized in the leader of the communist world and finally, Putin understood the "great power" concept as a historic pillar of Russian identity which other powers especially the west has to accept and respect regardless of his economic and technological position. Finally, we must return to the basic hypothesis of constructivists such as Alexander Went, who states: "Identity is a mental personality rooted in the actor's understanding of himself and others. It can be added that border and geopolitical changes have not affected this perception.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • authoritarianism
  • Constructivism
  • Great Power
  • Post-Soviet
  • Russia
  • National Identity
Afshar Bakeshlou, Fatemeh (2012), "Policy of Putin's State & Position of Russia's Oligarchy", Central Asia & the Caucuses Journal, Vol. 18, No. 77, pp. 1-23. [in Persian] Available at: http://ca.ipisjournals.ir/article_10513.html (Accessed on: 12/4/2021)
Arm, Armina & Barzegar, Keyhan (2021), “The Quest for Identity: The Role of “Self” and “Other” in: Russia’s Foreign Policy”, Central Eurasia Studies, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 27-49. [in Persian]. (DOI: 10.22059/JCEP.2021.314484.449963)
Behravesh, Meysam (2011), "The Thrust of Wendtian Constructivism", Available at: http://www.e-ir.info/2011/03/09/the-thrust-of-wendtian-constructivism/ (Accessed on: 12/9/2021)
Dehghani Firoozabadi, Seyyed jalal (2010), Foreign Policy of Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehrran: The Organization for Researching and Composing University Textbooks in the Humanities(SAMT). [in Persian]
Javadi Arjmand, Mohammad Jafar (2013), "Relation Between Identity & Interests in Foreign Policy of I. R. Iran with Emphasis on Constructive Approach", International and Political Research Quarterly, No. 15, pp. 47-71. [in Persian] Available at: http://pir.iaush.ac.ir/article_552036.html (Accessed on: 12/4/2021)
Karami, Jahangir (2003), "National Identity & Russia's Politics in the Near Abroad", Central Asia & the Caucuses Journal, Vol. 3, No. 44, pp. 35-62. [in Persian] Available at: http://ensani.ir/file/download/article/20101226200518-4.pdf (Accessed on: 12/4/2021)
Kelly, Catriona (2004), Grandpa Lenin and Uncle Stalin: Soviet Leader Cult for Little Children, The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships: Stalin and the Eastern Bloc, edited by Apor, Balázs & Et Al, London, Palgrave Macmillan, pp.102-122.
Kelly, Catriona (2005), "Riding the Magic Carpet: Children and Leader Cult in the Stalin Era", the Slavic and East European Journal, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 199-224. (DOI: 10.1057/9780230518216_6)
Klotz, Audie & Linch, Sisilia (2017), Strategies for Research in Constructivist International Relations, Hussein Salimi, Tehran: Ney Press. [in Persian]
Koenker, Diane P. & Bachman, Ronald D. (1997), "Revelations from the Russian Archives: Documents in English Translation", Washington, D.C. Library of Congress. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2501884?origin=JSTOR-pdf (Accessed on: 10/8/2021)
Koolaee, Elaheh & Rashidi, Ahmad (2010), “Slavophilism: The Outcpme of Intellectual Identity Crisis in Russia”, Politics Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 207-224. [in Persian] Available at: https://jpq.ut.ac.ir/ article_20228.html? lang=fa (Accessed on: 24/11/2021)
Levada Center (2020), “Attitueds toward Countries”, Available at: https://www.levada.ru/en/2020/09/30/attitudes-toward-countries-4/ (Accessed on: 30/9/2020)
Majidi, Mohammad Reza & Azimi Etemadi, Mohsen (2014), "Theory Approaches Towards Role of Identity in the International Politics", Politics Journal, Vol. 1, No. 45, pp. 209-227. [in Persian] (DOI:  10.22059/JPQ.2015.54431)
Mankoff, Jeffrey (2009), Russian Foreign Policy: The Return of Great Power: Second edition, United States of America: The Council of Foreign Relations.
Moravcsik, Andrew (2010), "Liberal Theories of international Relations: A Primer", Unpublished. Available at: http://www. princeton.edu/~amoravcs/ library/primer.doc (Accessed on: 20/11/2020) 
Morshedlou, Javad (2019), "Expansion of Tsarist Russia & Geopolitics Changing in Caspian Sea from Modern World Order Perspective (1550-1800)", Central Eurasia Studies, Vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 497-518 [in Persian] (DOI: 10.22059/ JCEP.2019.274138.449825) 
Noga, Magdalena (2011), "Comparing the Tsarist Russian and Soviet Empires", INQUIRIES Journal, Vol. 3. No. 12. pp. 1-12, Available at: http://www. inquiriesjournal.com/articles/600/comparing-the-tsarist-russian-and-soviet-empires (Accessed on: 12/4/2021)
Noori, Alireza (2008), "Improving Russia's Position in the World Order & Conflict with US in the Putin Period", Central Asia & the Caucuses Journal, Vol. 3, No. 61, pp. 91-123, [in Persian] Available at: http://ca.ipisjournals.ir/ article_10597.html (Accessed on: 12/4/2021)
Noori, Alireza (2010) A, " The Essence of the "Great Power" Thinking in the Russian Foreign Policy", Central Asia & the Caucuses Journal, Vol. 16, No. 71, pp. 133-162. [in Persian] Available at: http://ca.ipisjournals.ir/article_10556. html (Accessed on: 12/4/2021)
Noori, Alireza (2010) B, Russia's Foreign Policy in the Putin Period: Principles & Process, Tehran, Imam Hussein Comprehensive University & Great Prophet Press [in Persian]
Nopens, Patrick, F. P. (2010), “Russia as an Aspiring Power Centre and the Elussiveness of Modernity”, Studia Diplomatica, Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 23-4. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/44838603 (Accessed on: 12/4/2021)
Prizel, Ilya (2000), "Nationalism in Post-communist Russia: from Resignation to Anger", Budapest, Central European University Press, Open Edition Book.
Russell, Martin (2021), “Russia's 2021 Elections: Another Step on the Road to Authoritarian Rule”, Brussels, European Parliamentary Research Service. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/es/document/EPRS_BRI (2021)698018 (Accessed on: 10/9/2021)
Rutland, Peter (2000), "Putin's Path to Power", Post-Soviet Affairs Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp 313-354 (DOI: 10.1080/1060586X.2000.10641490)
Salimi, Hussein (2007), "A Constructivist Attitude Toward National Identity in Iran", National Studies Journal, Vol. 3, No. 31, pp. 31-54. [in Persian] (DOI: 20.1001.1.1735059.1386.8.31.2.0)
Sazmand, Bahare & Soranari, Hosein (2019), “Russia’s Identity and Interests in the Eurasian Regionalism”, Central Eurasia Studies, Vol. 12, No. pp. 95-113. [in Persian] (DOI: 10.22059/JCEP.2019.268580.449806).
Shad, Mohammad (2017), Iran in the Geometry of Russia's Foreign Policy, Tehran, Tehran International Studies & Research Institutes. [in Persian] 
Shakibi, Zhand (2018), Russia and the Politics of Occidentalism, Tehran, The Institute for Iran-Eurasia Studies. [in Persian]
Tefft, John (2020), “Understanding the Factors that Will Impact the Succession to Vladimir Putin as Russian President”, RAND Corporation, pp. 1-28. (Doi: https://doi.org/10.7249/PE349)
Trenin, Dmitri (2019), "Russia’s Changing Identity: In Search of a Role in the 21st Century", Carnegie Moscow Center, Available at: https://carnegie.ru/ commentary/79521 (Accessed on: 2019/07/18)
Tuminez, Astrid (2000), “Russian Nationalism and Vladimir Putin's Russia”, PONARS Policy, Memo 151, Series 1, pp 1-4. Available at: http://www. gwu.edu/~ieresgwu/assets/docs/ponars/pm_0151.pdf (Accessed on: 12/4/2021).
Uspenskij, Boris & Zhivov, Victor (2012), Tsar and God: Other Essays in Russian Cultural Semiotics, Boston, Academic Studies Press.
Went, Alexandr (2005), Social Theory of International Politics, Homeira Moshirzadeh, Tehran: Ministry Foreign Affairs Press. [in Persian]
Western Civilization (2021), "The Formation of Russia", ER Services. Available at: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldhistory/ (Accessed on: 18/07/2020)
Wood, Andrew (2018), “Putin & Russia in 2018-24 What Next?” Russia & Eurasia Programme. Available at: https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/ files/publications/research/2018-03-15-putin-russia-wood-final.pdf (Accessed on: 18/01/2021)
 
Russian
Бобо, Ло (2018), "внешняя политика России при Владимире Путине: авантюризм или реализм?", ифри, Russie.Nei.Visions, № 108, Ст 1-44. Ссылка: https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/bobo_lo_russia_ foreign_policy_ru_2018.pdf (Доступ на: 12/4/2021)
Богородская,О.Е. (2012), история россии с древнейших времен до 1917 года, Иваново, ИГЭУ (ивановский государственный энергетический университет). 
Брагин, Алексей (2015), азбука коммуниста учебное пособие для пропагандистов и агитаторов, Россия, вестник. 
Левада-Центр (2019), "динамика отношения к Сталину", updated: 6/5/2021
Ссылка: https://www.levada.ru/2019/04/16/dinamika-otnosheniya-k-stalinu/
Лихачева, Анастасия и ДР. (2014), “национальная идентичность и будущее России”, Москва, доклад международного дискуссионного клуба «валдай». Ссылка: http://vid1.rian.ru/ig/valdai/doklad_identichnost_RUS_ISBN.pdf (Доступ на: 12/4/2021) 
Симон, Герхард (1997), “Россия как великая держава. проблемы становления самосознания: прошлое и настояшее”, высшая школа экономики, С. 189-193. Ссылка: http://ecsocman.hse.ru/data/367/694/1219/026.SIMON.pdf (Доступ на: 12/4/2021)