نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استادیار زبان و ادبیات روسی، دانشگاه تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد مطالعات روسیه، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
This paper has investigated the impacts of modernism on women and consequently the family in Russia today. To this aim we have studied the history of the women presence in Russian society and the family condition in Russia before entrance of the modernity. Then, the effects of the social reforms at nineteenth and twentieth have been studied on women and Russian family. The entrance of modernism to Russia and its influence on women is investigated. This article expresses the positive and negative aspects of the modernism on women and family state. This is based on the theories of the social analysts and sociologists of the Russia and western countries.
Addition to the positive impacts of the modernism on the social lifestyle of the women, it had undesirable effects on position of the women in the family. Before the modernism, the marriage was regarded as sacred due to the society traditions and religious beliefs. Consequently, marriage has been mandatory and the refusal from that was unacceptable. The paternalistic sprite was prevailed to the Russian families in the past. Divorce concept was absurd and ugly. Monogamous marriage was the only traditional way. The fathers were responsible for economic tasks. The most important role of the women was the motherhood and parenting and the role of the wife. But, the modernism changed the social equations. The modernism took place in the Russia was emerged from the countries tried to impose their lifestyle. In fact, modernism was a son born in western countries
In communist era, it was attempted to highlight the role of the women in politics. Women held one third of parliamentary seats. This was resulted from competition between two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. This competition grew to all areas. The women in communist party of the Soviet Union were the effective in the Soviet Union.
In the early 1990s, the disillusioned society from the requirements of the former government refused everything which remembered from the communist era. The idea of working moms was among these ideas which dismantled. The families of single child and without children are increased impressively in Russia after the collapse. This led to negative population increase. In the recent decades, we can see increasing number of mothers who are working outside the home. Economic independence of women has increased their social position and led to a redefinition of the marriage relationship. Today, women are trying to create a balance between work and family. But, men still insist on their former role in the family. The results of the studies show that the women may change their role outside the home faster than the men at home. This resulted in greater pressure on women. Excessive fatigue resulted in a reduction of emotional relationship between their husband and children.
Many studies have indicated that women economically dependent on men are more interested in marriage. Earning money and financial independence of women have raised the expectation of women in marriage and they are more stringent to choose their husband. Furthermore, the women do not believe that they should provide the relief of their husband and every family member. If the women do not play their role, it is not possible to find any replacement for that and the peace and stability would be the missing link of the family relations.
One of the factors on evolution of the family is the globalism of the culture. This culture is one of the achievements of the modernism in contemporary era. All the indigenous traditions, values, customs, religious beliefs, traditional habitudes, family life, eating and even production are affected by the general western culture. The western culture has used the mass media such as social networks and TV to disseminate its shadow on outmost parts of the earth.
The desire to bear children in Russian families is dwindling. In 1970s the average of children in families was 2. In 1995, it was 1.4 and this number was 1.24 in 2002. Also, according to the expert’s assessment, the childbearing was less than the requirements of generation revival in Russian Federation. Therefore, the growth of the Russian population by 2007 has been decreased to 800 thousand people per year and the population is reduced 4.3% (i.e. equal to 6.4 million) with respect to population peak in 1993.
The reasons of these adverse effects may be summarized as follow: Communist beliefs and its influence in private life of the people and ignoring the moral and religious values; excessive limitations of the communist in relation to the west which led to an extreme tendency of youth and women’s attitudes to consumerist advertisement of the west; unstable economy and the crisis in Russia in beginning of the collapse and the years after that. It resulted in a decrease in the moral values and in the tendency of the families to revival of the national traditions.
According to the studies performed on the positive and negative aspects of the modernism on state of the women and the family in Russia, it can be concluded that the modernism phenomena is neither positive nor negative. Politic conditions in communities and the public mentality can make it a social current with positive or negative aspects.
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