توسعه‌طلبی روسیۀ تزاری و تغییر ژئوپلیتیک جایگاه دریای خزر از چشم‌انداز نظام جهانی مدرن (1550 تا1800)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار تاریخ، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

تا پیش از تسلط روسیۀ تزاری بر دریای خزر، این دریا بخشی از قلمرو جهان اسلام و حلقه اتصال مردم مسلمانی بود که پیرامون آن می‌زیستند. در منابع جغرافیایی اسلامی اطلاعات چشمگیری دربارۀ تجارت در این دریا و کانون‌ها و مسیرهای اصلی آن آمده است که از جایگاه مهم آن به‌عنوان کانون تجارت پررونق منطقه‌ای در سده‌های چهارم تا ششم هجری حکایت دارد. از نیمۀ سدۀ دهم/شانزدهم، به‌دنبال پیشروی نظامی روسیه در مسیر ولگا و دشت قبچاق و تصرف حاجی‌طرخان، روندی آغاز شد که سرانجام به فرادستی و اشراف روسیۀ تزاری بر این دریا و سرزمین‌های مسلمان‌نشین پیرامون آن انجامید. نتیجۀ تدریجی این روند، تغییر موقعیت ژئوپلیتیک دریای خزر در عرصۀ جهانی بود که آن را می‌توان در چارچوب نظریۀ نظام جهانی والرشتاین تبیین کرد. در نوشتار پیش‌رو تلاش می‌شود از همین منظر تحول موقعیت ژئوپلیتیک دریای خزر از کانون تجارت دریایی در بخشی از جهان اسلام به محور سیاست استعماری روسیۀ تزاری در شرق بررسی شود. هدف آن است که با تمرکز بر یکی از کانون‌های ارتباطی جهان اسلام، جلوه‌ای از نقش عامل استعمار در افول اقتصادی و تمدنی جهان اسلام بررسی شود. این بررسی با رویکردی بین‌رشته‌ای و مبتنی بر تحلیل و تفسیر اطلاعات موجود در منابع نوشتاری و اسناد دست اول در چارچوب نظریۀ نظام جهانی مدرن انجام شده است. نتیجۀ بررسی نشان می‌دهد که موقعیت ژئوپلیتیک دریای خزر در فاصلۀ نیمۀ سدۀ دهم/شانزدهم تا آستانۀ سدۀ سیزدهم/نوزدهم تغییر کرد. علت محوری این تغییر، راهبرد توسعه‌طلبانه و تلاش نظام‌مند حاکمان روسیه برای تعریف جایگاه این کشور در اقتصاد جهانی و اهمیت‌یافتن تجارت با شرق بود که دریای خزر محور اصلی آن به‌شمار می‌رفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Russia’s Imperial Expansion and Geopolitical Change in the Global Situation of the Caspian Sea (1550-1800 A.D.)

نویسنده [English]

  • Javad Morshedloo
Assistant Professor of History, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU)
چکیده [English]

For a long time, the Caspian Sea played a significant role in commercial relations between Muslims and the people who lived in the flatlands in south Russia as well as Eastern Europeans. The history of these commercial relations can be traced back to ancient times. Some Greek and ancient Iranian sources had references to these relations. Nevertheless, there are numerous evidence that point to the existence of a prosperous trans-Caspian trade in the early and medieval Islamic period. The volume of this trade experienced its zenith during the 10th and 11th centuries of which a good part belonged to the Iranian people. These people were living in the lands around the Caspian Sea from Darband (modern Дербент) in the west to Mianqishlagh peninsula (near modern Aqtau) in the east. People of Daylam, Rouyân, Tabarestân, Gorgân in southern Iranian shores owned a considerable share of this trade. This situation, although changeable and limited, continued to be controlled by Muslims until the advent of the 16th century. This was a crucial time in the history of the Caspian Sea trade when the situation began to change in favor of Russia. 
This study aims to trace a historical change in the global situation of the Caspian Sea during recent centuries. Its central question is that, how, and under what conditions the Caspian Sea changed to become a strategic field for Tsarist Russia's Asian policy. To explain the change we made use of Wallerestein’s Modern World-System theory. Actually, this study attempts to trace a gradual but continuous change in the situation of the Caspian Sea during 1550 and 1800, which covers the Phase I to III in Wallerestein's socio-historical explanative theory. Regarding the methodological considerations, it is a historical study with arguments based on an analytical survey of historical evidence within a conceptual framework that is inspired and manipulated by the Modern World-System theory. To advance the study, we tried to make use of available material. Besides a bunch of Persian and Arabic sources which includes both archival documents and books, there are several Russian contemporary sources, which we used to base our historical explanation on first-hand material. In addition, many recent studies have been employed with a critical approach.
Our concluding remarks could be organized and explained within two distinct historical periods; prior to the mid-16th, the Caspian Sea was host to a traditional marine trade within which the Iranian tradesmen played a significant role. The volume of this marine trade was not considered in comparison with that of the 18th century onward. Its nature was local and the most part of it transferred through two lines: south coasts, that included scattered points in Gilân (Daylam), Mazandarân (Tabaristân) and Gorgân (Astarabâd) with the small ports of western and northern coasts from Lankarân (modern Lenkoran) to Baku, Darband, Samandar (near modern Makhachkala) and Itil and, in a later time Sarây (near modern Astrakhan). This line passed through the southern and western coastal regions of the Caspian Sea and led to the mouth of the Volga (Itil) river. The second line bridged the eastern trade of China and India through Transoxiana and Mianghishlaq peninsula with Russia and Eastern Europe. Studies by Noonan and Kovalev based on newly discovered hordes of Islamic coins in western Russia show us that there had been a prosperous trade between eastern lands of the Caspian Sea through Russia and northern parts of Eastern Europe. This phase of Caspian trade experienced considerable growth during the 9th to 11th centuries and was developed by Muslim people who lived in the adjacent region.    
The second period began in the mid-16th century during which the geopolitical situation of the Caspian Sea experienced a gradual change. Russia’s conquest of Astrakhan (1558 A.D.) under Ivan IV proved to be a turning point in this process. This process was fulfilled by the strategic policies of Peter I and Catherin II in the late 17th and 18th centuries. Under Peter the Great, Russia experienced her crucial phase of westernized modernization and this development affected Russia’s approach toward Asia and the Caspian Sea. In the last decade of his life, Peter I tried to manipulate a strategy toward this encircled Sea and its adjacent region. At the top of his motives was Asian commerce whose importance was increasing constantly in the course of the18th century. Russian-Iranian trade through the Caspian Sea experienced an apogee in the early 18th century. However, the situation changes drastically following the collapse of the Safavid state in 1722. This catastrophic event convinced Peter to launch his famous Persian expedition as the second turning point in our historical survey. Moreover, Peter, I supported a modern and scientific plan to map and navigate the Caspian Sea. Peter’s successors, especially Catherin II and her mighty prime minister, i.e. Gregory Potemkin, followed this plan more seriously. During 1770-1773, S. G. Gmelin traveled to the Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea to advance a scientific-espionage program. His three-volume travelogue includes a wealth of information about the Caspian Sea and its Iranian shores. Finally, Mark Voinovitch’s diplomatic mission and his failed attempts to establish a trading factory in Ashuradeh (actually a castle) was the third turning point in the history of Caspian trade and Russian-Iranian relations. This is a meaningful end for our study, which means that in the advent of 19th century Russia was in a situation to use military power to protect her domination over the Caspian Sea.
Hence, according to our explanation, the gradual formation of tsarist Russia’s Caspian strategy was in line with a gradual change in the global situation of this Euro-Asian government as a rising empire. This changing situation had consequential results for Iran and its commercial relations with Russia. From the late 18th century, Russia took the upper hand in Caspian trade, and Iran lacked a naval power to ward off this strategic change. In fact, Iran's historical contribution to Caspian trade continued under Russia’s dominance and her continuous attempt to pass from a peripheral zone to the core. Hence, the 18th century has been a crucial period in the history of Iranian presence in the Caspian Sea and its adjacent region as well as their contribution to its economic life.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • colonial expansion
  • Iran
  • Marine Trade
  • Modern World-System
  • The Caspian Sea
  • Tsarist Russia
  • Wallerestein
A) Persian
1. Afshâr (Sistani), Iraj (2016), Daryâ-ye Mazandarân, Pazhuhesh dar Joghrafiya-ye Tabī’ī, Nâm v Pishīne-ye Tarikhī va Rezhīm-e Hoghughī, Mohit-e Zist v Eqtesâd, Tehran: Daftar-e Motale’at-e Siasi va Bein al-Melali,
2. Asnadi az Ravabet-e Iran va Russiye az Safavieh ta Qajariye (2008),Translated by R. Mosalmanian Qobadiani and B. Mosalmanian Qobadiani, Edited by H. Ahmadi, Tehran: Markaz-e Asnad va Tarikh-e Diplomacy.
3. Bakikhanov, A. (2004), Golestan-e Eram, Edited by A. Alizadeh, Tehran: Qoqnus.
4. Barimani, Ahmad (1976), Darya-ye Mazandaran, Tehran: University of Tehran.
5. Bigdeli, A. R. (2003), “The Caspian Sea as Depicted in the Ancient Maps”, Rahbord, No. 27, pp. 389-400.
6. Ibn Isfandyâr, Ali (1941), Tarikh-e Tabaristân, Edited by Abbas Igbal, Tehran: Asatir.
7. Jawdat, B. and N. Teimouri Khane Saray (2000), “Geopolitics of the Caspian Sea: an Outlook from the Third Millennium”, Political and Economic Ettela’at, No. 155-156, pp. 16-25.
8. Kazembeyki, M. A. (2005), Caspian Sea and the Great Powers: British Imperialism (1335-1338 A.H.), Tehran: Center for Archival Documents and History of Diplomacy.
9. Khani, M. H. and D. Karimipour (2012), “Russia, the Caspian Sea and International Order: a Strategic Passage”, Central Asia and the Caucasus Studies, No. 78, pp. 21-44.
10. Koolaee, Elaheh (1997), “The Geopolitical Consequences of Oil Exploitation in the Caspian Sea”, Rahbord, No. 13, pp. 19-36.
11. Kostenko, L. F. (2004), Sharh-e Asiya-ye Markazi va Enteshar-e Sivilizasion-e Rusi dar An, Translated by M. Davud Khanov, Edited by Gh. Zargarinajhad, Tehran: Moassese-ye Tahqiqat va Towse’e Olum-e Ensani.
12. Mar’ashi, Zahir al-Din (1850), Tarikh-e Tabarestân, Ruyân va Mazandarân, Edited by Bernhard Dörn, Tehran: Offset reprint.
13. Mofakham Payan, L. (1996), Daryâ-ye Khazar, Translated and Edited by J. Khomamizadeh, Rasht: Entesharat Hedayat.
14. Mojtahidzadeh, P. (2000), “The Legal Regime of the Caspian Sea: a Geopolitical Picture”, Political and Economic Ettela’at, No. 161-162, pp. 74-87.
15. Movahhed, M. A. (1996), “A Look on the Legal Regime of the Caspian Sea”, Energy Economics, No. 1, pp. 60-65.
16. Sarraf Yazdi, Gh. (2007), “One the Legal Regime of the Caspian Sea”, Political and Economic Ettela’at, No. 245-246, pp. 40-57.
17. Takmil Homayoun, N. (2000), Sargozasht-e Darya-ye Mazandaran, Tehran: Daftar-e Pazhuhesh-haye Farhangi.
18. Varahram, Gh. (1988), “The Caspian Sea and its Historical Events”, Tahqiqat-e Joghrafiyayi, No. 10, pp. 22-95.
19. Vosughi, M. B. and M. Sefatgol (2016), Atlas-e Tarikhi-ye Banader va Daryanavardi-ye Iran, Tehran: Sazman-e Banader va Daryanavardi.
 
B) Arabic
1. Abu Ḥamid al-Gharnâtî, (2003), Rehlat al-Gharnâtī: Tohfat al-Albab v Nokhbat al-A'jab v Rehlat fi Orubba v Asiya (1690-1691), ed. Qasem Vahab, Abu Dhabi.
2. Ibn Fażlân (1960), Resâlat ibn Fażlân, Edited by Sami al-Dahan, Dimashq.
3. Ibn Hawqal, Abu al-Qasem (1967), Kitâb Ṡürat al-Arż, Edited by F. Kramers, 2 Vols., Leiden: Brill.
4. Ibn Khordaḍbeh (1967), Kitâb al-Masâlek v al-Mamâlek, Edited by Dejoe, Leiden: Brill.
5. Ibn Miskuyah, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad (2001), Tajârob al-Umam va Ta’âqib al-Himam, Edited by A. Emâmi, Tehran: Sorush.
6. Ibn Rustah (1892), Kitâb al-A’lâq al-Nafiseh, Edited by Dejoe, Leiden: Brill.
7. Mas’udi, Ali B. Hossein (1970), Moruj az-Zahab va Ma’âden al-Jawhar, Tehran: Offset reprint.
8. Ramzi, M. M. (1908), Talfigh al-Akhbâr va Talqih al-Âsâr fi Tarikh Moluk-e Qazân va Tatar va Bulghar, Orenburg.
 
C) English
1. Allen, W. E. D. (1956), “The Sources for G. Delisle’s ‘Carte des Pays Voisins de la Mer Caspienne’ of 1723”, Imago Mundi, Vol. 13, pp. 137-150.
2. Ananich, Boris (2006), “The Russian Economy and Banking System”, in: D. Lieven (ed.), The Cambridge History of Russia, Vol. 2, Imperial Russia, 1689-1917, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 394-425.
3. Barbaro and Contarini (1873), Travels to Tana and Persia: a Narrative of Italian Travels in Persia in the 15th and 16th Centuries, London: ‎Hakluyt Society.
4. Cohen, Ariel (1996), Russian Imperialism, Development and Crisis, London and New York: Greenwood Publishers.
5. De Planhol, X.(1990), “Caspian See: Geography”, Encyclopedia Iranica, Edited by Ehsan Yarshater, Vol. 5 (f. 1), NewYork: Columbia University Press.
6. Early Voyages and Adventures to Russia and Persia, …. by Sir Anthony Jenkinson and Other Englishmen (1886), Edited by E. D. Morgan and C. H. Coote, Vols. 1-2, London: Hakluyt Society.
7. Gmelin, S. Gottlieb (2007), Travels through Northern Persia, 1770-1774, Translated and Annotated by Willem Floor, Costa Mesa: Mage Publishers.
8. Gmelin, Samuel G. (2013), Astrakhan anno 1770, Edited and Translated to English by Willem Floor, Mage Publishers.
9. Gopal, Surendra (1988), Indians in Russia in the 17th and 18th Centuries, New Delhi: ICHR.
10. Grey, Charles (1873), A Narrative of the Italian Travels in Persia in Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, London: Hakluyt Society.
11. Halperin, Charles J. (2009), Russia and the Golden Horde: the Mongol Impact on the Russian Medieval History, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
12. Hanway, Jonas (1753), An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea, Vols. 1-4, London: Mr. Dodsley.
13. Heckscher, Eli F. (1994), Mercantilism, Vol. 1, London and New York: Routledge.
14. Hughes, Lindsey (1993), New Perspectives on Muscovite History, Selected Papers from the Fourth World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
15. Kagarlitsky, Boris (2008), Empire of the Periphery: Russia and the World System, Translated by Renfrey Clarke, London: Pluto Press.
16. Khodarkovsky, Michael (2002), Russia’s Steppe Frontier: the Making of a Colonial Empire: 1500-1800, Indiana University Press.
17. Kotilaine, J. T. (2005), Russia’s Foreign Trade and Economic Expansion in the Seventeenth Century, Windows on the World, Leiden: Brill.
18. Kovalev, Roman K. (2011), “Khazaria and Volga Bulgaria as Intermediaries in Trade Relations between the Islamic Near East and the Rus’ Lands during the Tenth to Early Eleventh Centuries: the Numismatic Evidence: Part 1”, Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, Edited by Th. T. Allsen and Others, No. 18, pp. 44-45.
19. LeDonne, John P. (2004), The Grand Strategy of the Russian Empire, 1650-1831, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
20. Matthee, R. (2006), Politics of Trade in Safavid Iran, Silk for Silver, 1600-1730, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
21. McNeill, John (1838), Progress and Present Position of Russia in the East, London.
22. Mirfendereski, Guive (2001), A Diplomatic History of the Caspian Sea, Treaties, Diaries and the Stories, With a Foreward by H. E. Chehabi, Hampshire: Palgrave.
23. Noonan, Thomas S. (1998), The Islamic World, Russia and the Vikings, 750-900, Variorum Collected Studies Series, USA: Ashgate Publishing Limited.  
24. Resis, Albert (1985), “Russophobia and the “Testament” of Peter the Great, 1812-1980”, Slavic Review, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 681-693.
25. Spilman, James (1742), A Journey through Russia into Persia by Two English Gentlemen, London.
26. Subtelny, Orest (1974), “Peter I’s Testament: a Reassessment”, Slavic Review, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 663-678.
27. Sunderland, Willard (2002), “Imperial Space: Territorial Thought and Practice in the Eighteenth Century”, in: J. Burbank, M. von Hagen and A. Remnev (eds.), Russian Empire, Space, People, Power, 1700-1930, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
28. Vaggi, Gianni and Peter Groenewegen (2003), A Concise History of Economic Thought, from Mercantilism to Monetarism, New York: Palgrave and Macmillan.
29. Wallerstein, Emanuel (2011), The Modern World System, Vol. 1, Berkeley: University of California Press.
30. Wanner, Michel (2013), “Development of Indian Trading Community in Astrakhan in Context of Russian-Indian Relationship (1725-1800)”, WBHR, No. 1, pp. 34-51.
 
 
D) French
1. Le Brun, Cornelis (1725), Voyage de Corneille Le Brun par la Moscovie, en Persia, et aux Indes Orientales, Vol. 3, Amsterdam: N.P.
2. Lettres Édifiantes et Curieuses Concernant l’Asie (1780), Edited by L. Aimé-Martin, L’Afrique et l’Amérique, 4 Tomes, T. 4, Paris: Éd. Société du Panthéon littéraire.
3. Struys, Jan Janszoon (1681), Les Voyages de Jean Struys: en Moscovie, en Tartarie, en Perse, aux Indes and en Plusieurs Autres Païs Etrangers…, Paris: M. Galinius.
 
E) Russian
1. Aбдуллаев, Г. В. (1965), Азербайчан в ХVIII Веке и Взаймоотнешения его с Россией, Баку: Издательство Академия НАУКА Азербайджан СССР.
2. Атаев, Х. А. (1991), Торгово-економические Связи Иран с Россией в XVII-XIX вв., Москва: Издательство НАУКА.
3. Бутков, П. Г. (1869), Материялы для Новой Истории Кавказа с 1722 по 1803 г., Том 1-2, С. Петербург.
4. Бушев, П. П. (1978), Посольство Артемия Волынского в Иран в 1715-1718 гг., Москва: издательство НАУКА.
5. Гербер, Юган Гюстав (1760), Описние Стран и Народов вдоль Запдного Берега Каспийского Моря 1728 г., История География и Етнография Дагестана, С. Петербург: Учебники для Школи.
6. Дорн Б. (1875), Каспий о Походахь Древних Русских в Табаристан с Допольнительними Сведениями о Других Набогах их на Прибежия Каспийскаго Моря, С. Петербург.
7. Дубровин, Н. (1886), История Войны и Владычества Русских на Кавказь, Том 2, С. Петербург.
8. Котов, Федов (1958), Хожение Купца Федота Котова в Персией, Ред. Н. А. Кузенцва, Москва.
9. Курукин, I. V. (2010), Персидськии Поход Петра Великого, Низовой Корпус на Берегах Каспия, Москва: Издательство Квадрига.
10. Куканова, Н. Г. (1977), Очерки по Истории Русско-Иранских Торговых Отношенний в XVII Первой Половине XIX Века, Мордовский Государственный Университет.
11. Лысцов. В.П. (1951), Персидский Поход Петра I 1722-1723, Москва: Издательство МГУ.
12. Маркова, О. П. (1959), Руско-Иранская Торговля в Последние Десятилетя ХVIII Века, Ученые Записки Института Востоковедения, Том 1, Баку, c. 103-122.
13. Никитин, Афанаси (1958), Хожение за Три Моря, 1466-1472 гг., Москва: Издательство НАУКА CCCР.
14. Никонов, О. А. (2009), Иран в Внешнеполитической Стратегии Российской Империи в XVIII Веке, Монографя. Москва: Владимир.
15. Рябцев, А. Л. (2012), Государственное Регулирование Восточной Торговли России в XVII-XVII Веках, Монография, Астрахань.
16. Соймонов, Ф. И. (1763), Описание Каспийского Моря и Чиненных но оном Российских Завоеваний..., С. Петербург: Академи Наук.
17. Юхт, А. И. (1994), Торговля с Восточными Странм и Внутренний Рынок России, (20-60е Годы ХVIII Века), Москва: Издательство НАУКА.