نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار، گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی
2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Power (geopolitical) rivalries in the foreign policy of countries have long had a major impact on the formation of relations between them. Among these, geopolitical foundations are one of the most important variables influencing the formation of foreign policy. The proximity of the Islamic Republic of Iran to various geopolitical and geostrategic regions is one of the most important opportunities related to foreign policy. In order to achieve national goals and interests in its foreign policy, Iran must consider the geopolitical foundations of its geopolitical position and geostrategy, especially in relation to its neighbors. Meanwhile, Turkey, as one of Iran's most important neighbors and actors in the Eurasian region, in order to achieve national goals and interests in its foreign policy, is forced to communicate in various fields and this necessitates the study of relations between the two countries. The present research is applied in terms of the type of research and is qualitative in terms of method which is the type of record-keeping method used. The findings of the research show that in accordance with the policies adopted by both countries in this region, the Islamic Republic of Iran in terms of geopolitical components which includes economic, security, cultural components and such in order to achieve maximum national interests has chosen relations with Turkey from interactive to competitive.
The Eurasian region has a special place in the policies of regional and supra-regional powers due to its special geopolitical, geo-economic and geostrategic position. In the meantime, the two countries of the Islamic Republic of Iran and Turkey, due to being located in this region, have always tried to take steps towards their national goals by adopting different policies and thereby secure their national interests. Both countries are trying to expand their influence in the region, given the capabilities and limitations of their foreign policy. On the other hand, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the opening of new borders, not only did the military threat against Iran diminish, but it also created a variety of new opportunities for Iran. In addition to common religion, Iran has historical, ethnic and cultural ties with most of the republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as with some of these countries. Also in terms of geopolitical issues, first, none of these republics has direct access to open waters, and secondly, the Central Asian region is located as a barrier between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Russian Federation. Therefore, the I. R. Iran must formulate its foreign policy strategy in such a way that by utilizing its geopolitical infrastructure, it can achieve its national interests with Turkey in the Eurasian region. Since every research revolves around one or more key questions due to its research focus, the research questions are:
Research Question: What are the effects of the geopolitical foundations of the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran on relations with Turkey in Eurasia?
Research Hypothesis: In response to the research question, we can say that geopolitical foundations (regional competition, economic, ideological, political and security issues) have dual and contradictory effects on the foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in relation to Turkey; as it formulates the geopolitical relations between the two countries in an interactive-competitive way.
Methodology (and Theoretical Framework if there are): The present research is qualitative in terms of method. Documentary and library methods have been used to collect reliable and first-hand data. In this way, by identifying the most reliable sources related to the research topic, the files were taken and then analyzed in a logical order. Therefore, the paper has used comparative methods, analysis using library, and documentary data.
Results and Discussion: The Islamic Republic of Iran and Turkey are the main regional actors that play a prominent role in several geographical areas separately in terms of geopolitical weight and identity. Iran and Turkey, using their Iranian-Turkish identity, have sought to influence strategic regions by linking their principles and values to regional issues, in particular the leadership of ideological movements and non-governmental actors. In fact, these two actors are pursuing their national interests in connection with regional policies. Accordingly, instability has become a major feature of bilateral relations. However, ideological differences, geopolitical concerns and regional rivalry between the two countries have sometimes turned into crises. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the limitation of new possibilities and opportunities arising from the developments in Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as the policies of the West, especially the United States, against Iran's influence in the southern part of the Soviet Union, led to the emergence of new governments.
Conclusion: As discussed earlier, as we move away from the emergence of these new nations in Central Asia and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the governments of Iran and Turkey are aware of the dangers of over-competition especially in the economic and energy sectors (Oil and gas) and also by discovering areas of joint cooperation, including security issues that both countries faced, they have tried to reduce the scope of competition and their relationship towards cooperation or at least a mixture of cooperation and competition. Of course, it should be emphasized that geopolitically, the two countries, despite having sometimes-conflicting interests are forced to cooperate with each other and as the course of relations between the two shows, the two countries cannot have long-term strained relations. In short, the rivalry between Iran and Turkey in Eurasia is not a worrying issue for Iran, especially given the turmoil in the surrounding countries. The Caucasus is more geopolitically important, but Russia’s influence and activities in that region overshadow the sense of rivalry between Iran and Turkey. The same is true of Central Asia. In both regions, Russia remains the main power and its political influence is much greater than that of Iran and Turkey.