عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: After the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan as a Muslim republic in the neighborhood of Iran, Tehran and Baku were expected to establish close and stable relations despite their historical, cultural and religious ties; but in fact, Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan experienced tense and turbulent relations and Baku established closer relations with Iran's enemies and rivals including Israel.
Research Question: "What strategy and behavior pattern does the Republic of Azerbaijan follow in the confrontation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Israel?"
Research Hypothesis: In confrontation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Israel, the Republic of Azerbaijan follows the strategy and behavioral pattern of balancing the threat.
Methodology (and Theoretical Framework if there are): This study uses a combination of constructivist and threat balance theories. The qualitative method of systematic review has been used to examine the components of the question and the main tool for data collection in this research is library studies.
Results and Discussion: Although the Shiite religious commonality and the historical cultural commonality between the nations of Iran and Azerbaijan are very deep-rooted, the orientation of the foreign policy of the two countries in bilateral, regional and international relations has been formed by relying on other sources of identity. The Republic of Azerbaijan feels threatened by the Shiite religious unity and the Persian-Turkish dichotomy, and therefore tries to replace it with the conflicting political identity of Iran and the Israel by using a strategy of balancing the threat. The Israel regime, with its Jewish-Zionist identity has become a strategic partner of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Islamic Republic of Iran has been placed in an "other" position for Baku.
By using the strategy of balancing threats at the domestic and regional level, the Republic of Azerbaijan has been able to adjust its behavioral pattern in the face of the confrontation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Israel. Despite the fundamental confrontation between Iran and Israel, by establishing relations with Israel and expanding these relations and creating insecurity on Iran's borders, Baku is trying to force Tehran to interact with it and reconsider its relations with Armenia. In addition to Baku's sense of threat from Iran, other causes and motives are also involved in this relationship Such as: geostrategic considerations in relation to Tel Aviv and subsequently strategic considerations in relation to the West, military modernization of the Republic of Azerbaijan, economic interests in energy relations and also the issue of the liberation of Karabagh.
At the geopolitical level, introducing Iran as a common enemy is the most important element of the alliance between Baku and Tel Aviv. In other words, one of the factors influencing the joint and complementary strategic views of Baku and Tel Aviv is the role of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the peripheral strategy of the Israeli regime. Based on this peripheral strategy, Israel is trying to bring the threat of its presence closer to Iran's borders by expanding relations with the Republic of Azerbaijan. In fact, using the constructivist theory, it can be said why the political-religious and ethnic identity of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Islamic Republic of Iran has become one of the most important sources of strengthening Baku-Tel Aviv relations.
Conclusion: In general, the strategic relations between Baku and Tel Aviv cannot be fully explained without considering the Iranian component. By using the strategy of balancing threats - at the domestic and regional level - the Republic of Azerbaijan has been able to adjust its behavioral pattern in the face of the confrontation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Israel.
The identity conflict between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Islamic Republic of Iran has created different approaches to security which has affected any desire for close relations between the two nations. Unlike Iran's prominent Shiite political identity, the Republic of Azerbaijan seeks its security in joining the rival identity of Tehran that is Israel. The relationship with the Israeli regime also guarantees Baku's multiple goals in terms of security approaches. In fact, the behavioral pattern of the Republic of Azerbaijan has turned the Iranian-Azeri identity conflict or in other words, the Iranian Shiite revolution against Azerbaijan's secular system, into Iran-Israel conflict.