عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: The authentic culture of the Caucasus can be found in the handicrafts of this region, which is tied to the culture of Iran and shows the creativity, thought and taste of the people of this land. The diversity of climate, weather and culture was well reflected in the variety of handicrafts of the people of the Caucasus during the period of Tsarist Russia, which had a great impact on the family economy.
With the occupation of the Caucasus in the territory of the Tsarist Russian Empire, the government's economic policies in the Caucasus, during the period of establishing the sovereignty were accompanied by many problems to determine the relationship of the South Caucasus with the governing body. Different points of view would fail and as a result, neither the central government nor the local government could pursue a coherent policy. Despite this, the Caucasus never found a better place than a reliable raw material depot for Central Russian industries.
The first half of the 19th century until the peasant reforms in 1861 AD, handicrafts in the Caucasus in order to strengthen the regional economy, social welfare and restore the relationship between the people and the government, in line with the general policies of the government, found an opportunity for prosperity and active participation in domestic and international markets such as Nizhny Novgorod; To the extent that they do not dominate the sale of Russian products in the region and serve the central Russian industries to supply their raw materials, so that perhaps by changing their customs and traditions, they can become closer to the Russian culture. Handicrafts played a great role in the region's self-sufficiency, depending on the geographical conditions of the region to respond to the needs and solve them or provide welfare.
With the peasant reforms of 1861, the economic conditions in the Caucasus underwent many changes and colonial policies became more apparent than before. The Caucasus became a largest warehouse of raw materials and a larger sales market for Central Russian industries. Handicrafts became the target of this policy and Caucasian family management gradually changed. At the end of the 19th century, the number of artisans decreased sharply, but instead, the prosperity of some crafts increased and because these industries had great economic values for the benefit of the government, the government took steps to develop these industries.
The South and North Caucasus had completely different conditions in terms of agriculture. Because the share of fertile agricultural land in the North Caucasus was more, agriculture flourished in this region and handicrafts were produced to the extent of their needs, but a large part of the land in the South Caucasus was made up of pastures, which had good conditions for ranching. For this reason, a lot of wool, silk and leather were produced in this region, and due to the lack of suitable land for agriculture and on the other hand, to fill leisure time in the cold season, handicrafts flourished. Research question: The main goal of this research is to answer the question of what role handicrafts played in the Caucasian family economy in the last century of Tsarist Russia.
Research Hypothesis: Our hypothesis in this historical research is based on the fact that according to the agricultural and rural structure, climate diversity, available raw materials and socio-political conditions in the Caucasus under the Russian occupation, handicrafts by expanding the spirit of participation of family members and raising the level of employment and increasing per capita income bears a significant part of the economic burden.
Methodology: The current fundamental research is based on qualitative method of content analysis, the tool is historical data which is analyzed with a descriptive-analytical approach.
Results and Discussion: Although the tsarist Russian government could not have a coherent policy regarding the role of the Caucasus in the imperial policy, it turned the Caucasus into a reliable source of raw materials for Central Russian industries. From the point of view of the government, the development of handicrafts in the Caucasus was justified to some extent so that they would not dominate the sale of Russian products in the region and serve the industries of Central Russia. Despite this, the role of handicrafts in the family economy in the Caucasus was large, and it was a function of geographical conditions, people's lifestyle, access to primary resources, culture and politics, and according to geographical and cultural conditions, it had a lot of diversity and most people were engaged in several fields. In addition, handicrafts provided the opportunity for the participation of all family members in strengthening the family economy, and each family member at any age worked in a part of handicrafts depending on his abilities. People's employment during the cold season, when communication routes between villages and cities were closed, provided a very good opportunity to strengthen the Caucasian family's economy, which in addition to entertainment, also brought income. With the industrial development in the region, in the late 19th century and early 20th century, some handicrafts flourished in this region and became the main occupation of the people in the South Caucasus.
Conclusion: The share of handicrafts in the family economy of the South Caucasus was higher than that of the North Caucasus, and it covered nearly one third of the living expenses of the families of the South Caucasus, which contributed more to their expenses in the conditions of war, unrest and drought.