بررسی مقایسه‌ای عملکرد اقتصادی دو کشور ازبکستان و قزاقستان با رویکرد نولیبرال (2010-1991)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مطالعات منطقه‌ای دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه یزد

چکیده

رویکرد نولیبرال با هدف پیشبرد توسعه در کشورهای مختلف سیاست‌های مختلفی را از جمله اصلاح نظام پولی و مالی، خصوصی‌سازی و حذف موانع پیش‌روی سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی طرح می‌کند. از آغاز فروپاشی اتحاد شوروی کشورهای آسیای مرکزی رویکردهای متفاوتی را نسبت به اصلاحات اقتصادی و حرکت به‌سوی بازار آزاد با هدف توسعۀ اقتصادی در پیش گرفتند و به نتایج متفاوتی رسیدند. برای نمونه درحالی‌که ازبکستان در این دوره، رشد اقتصادی 5/2 درصد را به‌دست آورده است، قزاقستان با 10 درصد رشد اقتصادی در میان 10 کشور برتر جهان در این زمینه قرار دارد. این کشور دو سوم اقتصادش را خصوصی کرده است، پیشرفته‌ترین کشور منطقه از نظر اصلاحات اقتصادی است، حجم دولت در این کشور نسبت به ازبکستان خیلی کوچک‌تر است؛ ولی ازبکستان در همۀ این موارد در میان پنج کشور منطقۀ آسیای مرکزی جایگاه چهارم و یا پنجم را دارد. این تفاوت در وضعیت دو کشور به‌دلیل تطابق زودهنگام اقتصاد قزاقستان با سیاست‌های نولیبرال در ارتباط با اصلاحات اقتصادی و به تأخیرانداختن اصلاحات اقتصادی در ازبکستان است. هدف این نوشتار بررسی اقتصاد سیاسی ازبکستان و قزاقستان براساس این شاخص‌ها با درنظر گرفتن رویکرد نولیبرالی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study on Economic Performance of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan from the Perspective of Neo-liberal Approach (1991-2010)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayed Dawood Aghaee 1
  • Ibrahim Taheri 2
1 Professor of Regional Studies, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Neoliberal approach with the aim to promote development in different countries has particular implications. It can be cited as monetary and financial system reform, privatization, elimination of barriers to trade and foreign investment. Hence, from the beginning of the post-Soviet, Central Asian countries adopted different approaches towards economic reform and moved towards a free market with the objective of economic development. They have reached different conclusions. For example, while Uzbekistan had 5.2 percent of economic growth, Kazakhstan with 10 percent of economic growth was among the world top 10 countries in terms of the set. It had Two-thirds of economy in private sector, the most advanced country in the region in terms of economic reforms, size of government in this country is much smaller than Uzbekistan, while in all cases, Uzbekistan is the fourth or fifth among the five countries of Central Asia. We believe this difference in status between the two countries is because of early compliance of Kazakhstan’s economy with neoliberal policies in relation to economic reforms and mismatch and delay in economic reforms in Uzbekistan. The aim of this paper is to examine political economy of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, based on the neoliberal approach.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • free market
  • Kazakhstan
  • Neoliberal approach
  • Prices
  • private sector
  • Uzbekistan
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