پایداری یا ناپایداری گذار روسیه به مردم‌سالاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار روابط بین‌الملل گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مازندران

2 دانشجوی دکتری سیاست تطبیقی و مدرس دانشگاه- مونیخ آلمان

چکیده

تجربۀ دو خیزش انقلابی روسیه در قرن بیستم که از یک‌سو نظم اقتصادی- اجتماعی نوینی را ایجاد کرده است و از سوی دیگر، بسترهای چرخش نظام سیاسی از پادشاهی به یک جمهوری مردم‌سالار و سپس دولت شورویایی و سرانجام جمهوری برپایۀ ریاست جمهوری را در آخرین دهۀ قرن بیستم آماده کرده است، جنبش‌های مردم‌سالارخواه شناخته می‌شود. در این پیوند، فروپاشی اتحاد شوروی و بروز نظم نوین، به‌‌عنوان جهشی به‌سوی مردم‌سالاری شناخته شده است. بنابراین، با وجود بسترسازی‌های گوناگون برای گذار به‌سوی مردم‌سالاری در یک قرن گذشته، هنوز روسیه در نوسان بین مردم‌سالاری و اقتدارگرایی قرار دارد. پرسش اصلی این است که چرا فرآیند دموکراتیک‌سازی در روسیه ناکام بوده است. فرضیۀ اصلی نوشتار بر تقابل ادراک نخبگان و توده‌ها از مفهوم مردم‌سالاری، فرهنگ سیاسی روسیه، ضعف جامعۀ مدنی، اقتصاد سیاسی دولتی، پیشینۀ امنیتی نخبگان سیاسی و سیاست‌های پوتین بنا شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Consistency and Inconsistency of Russia’s Transition to Democracy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Jafari 1
  • Vahid Zolfaghari 2
1 Associate Professor of International Relations, University of Mazandaran, Iran
2 PhD Student in Comparative Politics, Munich, Germany
چکیده [English]

Experience of double revolutionary upheavals in Russia during the 20th century which produced a new socio-economic regularity on one hand and changed the political system from monarchial to democratic republic and then soviet state and finally presidential republic at the end of 20th century on the other hand are treated as democratic movements. In this regard, crumbling of ex-soviet regime and blooming of new order has been behaved as mutation toward democracy. Hence, despite of various attempts on crossing toward democracy during the last century, Russia is oscillating between democracy and authoritarianism. The main question of this paper is that why the democratization process were ill-fated in Russia? The main hypothesis of this research emphasizes on polarity between elites and masses over the concept of democracy, political culture of Russia, security background of political elites, putinism and economic structure of the state.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • authoritarianism
  • Democracy
  • political culture
  • Putinism
  • Russia
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