جایگاه گفتمان نگاه به شرق در تغییر رویکرد سیاست خارجی ایران با تأکید بر ژنوم ژئوپلیتیک روسیه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

2 استادیار روابط بین‌الملل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

چکیده

از اولویت‌های سیاست خارجی ایران بنابر سند چشم‌انداز بیست‌ساله، دست‌یابی به جایگاه برتر منطقه‌ای ‌است. با وجود ظرفیت‌هایی ‌که این هدف‌گذاری را معقول کرده است محدودیت‌هایی هم وجود دارد که تأمین آن را با مشکل روبه‌رو می‌‌سازد. یکی از این موانع چالش‌زا، ساختار نظام بین‌الملل و نظام فرعی منطقه‌ای‌ است که جمهوری اسلامی ایران باید برای دستیابی به این موقعیت برتر بر آن‌ها ‌غلبه کند. ژنوم ژئوپلیتیک به‌مثابۀ ‌نقشۀ ژنتیک جغرافیایی سیاست و برخاسته از جغرافیای یک کشور، سیاست خارجی کشورها را در تأثیر قرار می‌دهد. ایران با داشتن پانزده کشور همسایه در منطقه‌ای ژئواستراتژیک، موقعیت برجسته‌ای دارد. این نوشتار با هدف بررسی عامل‌های ژئوپلیتیک ‌‌تأثیرگذار بر تغییر نگاه سیاست خارجی ایران از غرب به شرق با تأکید بر روسیه انجام شده است. نگارندگان، با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به‌دنبال پاسخ به این پرسش هستند که چه عامل‌های ژئوپلیتیکی سبب تغییر نگاه سیاست خارجی ایران از غرب به شرق به‌ویژه روابط ایران و روسیه در سال‌های 1991 تا 2016 شده است؟ در پاسخ به این پرسش فرضیه این است که عامل‌های ژئوپلیتیک ایران، ساختار نظام بین‌الملل، فروپاشی اتحاد شوروی، تغییر موقعیت ایران در منطقه، گفتمان‌های سیاست خارجی ایران، منطق سیاست و فشار ‌‌غرب در زمینه‌های ‌مختلف علیه ایران سبب تغییر نگرش گفتمان سیاست خارجی ایران از غرب به شرق بین سال‌های 1991 تا 2016 و ایجاد روابط ویژه بین ایران و روسیه شد. به‌گونه‌ای ‌که با وجود برخی منافع متفاوت، رابطه با روسیه از مهم‌ترین روابط سیاست خارجی ایران در سه سطح دوجانبه، منطقه‌‌ای ‌و بین‌المللی شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Place of Looking at the East Discourse in Changing Iran’s Foreign Policy Approach by Emphasizing on the Geopolitical Genome of Russia

نویسندگان [English]

  • hadi sayadi 1
  • Ardeshir Sanaei 2
1 Student-University of Tehran. Center of Political Science in Iran
2 Assistant Professor of International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch
چکیده [English]

One of the priorities of Iran’s foreign policy according to the 20-year vision plan is to achieve regional superiority. In spite of the potentials that have made achieving this goal possible, there are some limitations to obtain it. One of these challenging barriers is the structure of the international system and the regional sub-systems that the Islamic Republic of Iran needs to achieve in order to attain this superior position. The geopolitical genome as a geopolitical map of politics is based on the geography of a country and its ability to influence other countries foreign policy. Geopolitics evaluates the global and regional power base on natural geography, in other words on the geographic plan of interaction and in the policy field. It establishes a relationship between power and goals. The geopolitical genome is a geographic map of the country’s politics that has a significant impact on the behavior of political systems in the international system. Just as humans operate in accordance with their genetic mapping, they also direct genetic codes to other countries. If the geopolitical genome is able to be related to the national interests of a country with the geographical advantages of other countries, it is interdependence. The philosophy of international engagement, development and evolution of global system which allows politicians to take advantage of geographical location of the land, the strategic sensitivities of the sea, land and scarce economic, energy and water resources make regional and global political dominance of power, workable. Iran has a remarkable position with 15 neighboring countries in this geostrategic region. The country is potentially one of the most influential and powerful countries in the world. As foreign policy and government performance are affected by the geopolitical environment and requires the establishment of interaction in a set of spatial and temporal behaviors, the Islamic Republic of Iran, despite having a unique strategic position, lacks a desirable position in international system and is facing increasing external threats. This research aims to study geopolitical factors influencing the change in Iran’s foreign policy from the west to the east with an emphasis on Russia. The author, using a descriptive-analytical method, is trying to answer this question that what geopolitical factors have changed Iran's foreign policy perspectives from the west to the east especially in relation between Iran and Russia during 1991 to 2016? The hypothesis of the research is: the geopolitical factors of Iran, the structure of the international system, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the change of Iran’s position in the region, the discourses of Iran’s foreign policy, the logic of politics and the pressure of Western sanctions in various fields against Iran have changed the attitude of foreign policy discourses of Iran from the west to the east between 1991 and 2016 which resulted in establishment of special ties between Iran and Russia. In spite of some different interests, relations with Russia became one of the most important foreign policy aspects of Iran at three levels: bilateral, regional and international.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foreign Policy
  • Genome
  • Geopolitics
  • Iran
  • Looking at the East
  • Russia
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